External battery for Xiaomi M365/PRO/1S

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  • External battery for Xiaomi M365/PRO/1S

It's no secret that many owners of Xiaomi M365 and PRO would like to increase the range and speed of their scooter.

This can be achieved in two ways: the first one is to replace the battery to a more capacious and high-voltage one, or the second way is to keep the standard battery, but install an additional external battery.

In following two videos I will show you how to install an external battery to the scooter, and this battery can be easily connected or disconnected at any moment, without voltages aligning. We can even use a higher voltage external battery, for example 12s.

The first video is long and full of theory:


The second video is focused on mount process and testing, so it is shorter and simpler:


As usual, I made a short text version for people who prefer reading rather than watch the video. But this text contains only 30% of information, so I highly recommend to watch the videos.


Let's get started!

The first thing you should know is that only 3 elements are needed to equip the scooter with an extra battery:

  1. Battery
  2. Mounted bag
  3. Adapter to match external and internal battery("Rita")

All you need to install an extra battery

Battery

Of course, this is the most important element. "Bigger" battery - more energy and more range. But you must understand, that "bigger" can mean 2 things:

  1. More capacity
  2. Higher voltage

Increasing capacity, you improve range. Raising voltage, you improve maximum speed.

Obviously, you want everything at once. Therefore, usually people install an additional battery with both increased capacity and raised voltage.

But you must be careful with voltage, because it is limited by the scooter's controller. The original battery's voltage is 36V, or, in other words, 10s. 10s means that the battery contains 10 serially connected parallels, each of 3,6V.

The scooter controller can withstand voltage up to 44V, so the battery configuration may be increased up to 12s, giving 20% more speed.

Different battery configurations

As for the battery capacity - you can make it of any value you want, if only it fits in a bag. My bag holds up to 50 18650 cells, so it’s possible to make a 10s5p battery, which will only give a range increase, or 12s4p, which will provide an increase in both range and speed.

You ask me: why do I consider 10s5p battery if 12s4p is better? Well, 12s has one disadvantage - it can not be charged with original charger, and you need to buy a higher-voltage one, or modify the original charger.

Finally, in my opinion, 12s4p battery is the best choice for external battery.


Mounted bag

There are still no factory-made bags with a rigid mount on the scooter frame. Therefore, the main idea is to get any cheap standard bag, and equip it with a self-made plastic 3d-printed mount.

Here is my version of mounted bag:

Mounted bag

Mounted bag

You can see that the mount matches the shape of the scooter frame, so a single clip is enough for a secure fit. Thus, my bag is easy to install and cheap.


Adapter to match external and internal batteries

We need to use a special adapter because of fundamental problem - the voltage of a battery depends on it's charge level:

The voltage of a battery depends on it's charge level

And if we connect these batteries in parallel, the current starts to flow from more charged one to less charged one, like water in communicating vessels:

Communicating vessels

Finally, the voltages will be self-aligned:

Self-aligned batteries

But the current between the batteries can reach significant values during the charge flow process, and charge current like this are not allowed for batteries:

Overcurrent

Therefore, we must block the current between the batteries, and the first idea is to use 2 diodes for this purpose:

Idea with 2 diodes

But this simple solution is not acceptable to the electric scooter, because it's controller not only drain current from the batteries, but also recovery energy back when the brake is pushed. Diodes block the energy recovery current, therefore voltage at the controller instantly rises up, and the controller burns out.

So, we need a smarter circuit that could distinguish energy recovery current and current between batteries. This circuit must analyze controller and batteries voltages, and decide which current should be passed, and which - blocked. And this circuit also must connect to controller's data line to provide information about additional battery state:

Desired smart circuit

I developed this smart circuit, here it is:

Rita general view and pinout

I named it "Rita". Why? Well, the answer can be found in the first video at the beginning of this article =)

Ok, finally, we reviewed all the devices needed to install an extra battery.


Let's pass to the mount process.

The first step is to secure the bag:

Bag installation
Use a wrench for the most secure fit


After the bag is mounted, you can still put your feet on the scooter and fold it:

Installed bag

Then, let's install Rita inside the scooter and plug all wires:

Installed and connected Rita

And finally plug in the external battery:

Extra battery inside the bag

Final result

All done! The additional battery is successfully installed!


Let's pass to the range and maximum speed tests.

I use a 12s4p external battery, based on LG M26 cells, so my battery is 10400mAh of capacity and 44.4V of voltage.

I spent the whole day riding the scooter, to compare the single internal battery and internal battery coupled with additional external one.

Here are results I got:

Xiaomi M365 characteristics before and after installing the external battery

Seems not bad!

And now I am really happy with this external battery. Before I installed it, I had to constantly worry if I had enough battery charge, plan a route on the map and think about where to recharge on the way. With the external battery I just ride the whole day where I want, and never worry about charge level.

So, I highly recommend everyone to install an additional battery for Xiaomi M365, PRO and 1S electric scooters. This is a whole new level in usability.


Here are links to the equipment I used:

  1. "Rita" adapter - https://m365.embedden.com/rita_adapter
  2. Mounted bag - https://m365.embedden.com/mounted_bag
  3. External battery 10s4p 13800mAh - https://m365.embedden.com/36v_13800mah_battery
  4. External battery 12s3p 10350mAh - https://m365.embedden.com/44_4v_10350mah_battery
  5. 12s charger - https://m365.embedden.com/12s_charger
  6. Complete all-in-one pack to boost the range (10s battery + Rita + bag) - https://m365.embedden.com/range_boost_kit
  7. Complete all-in-one pack to boost the range and speed (10s battery + Rita + bag + 12s charger) - https://m365.embedden.com/range_speed_boost_kit


I also invite you to join my telegram group related to Xiaomi M365, PRO and 1S electric scooters:

https://t.me/m365_custom_electronics_en

Feel free to ask your questions!


Sincerely,

Denis.